Zidong Lin, Wei Ya, Vignesh Venkata Subramanian, Constantinos Goulas, Benedetto di Castri, Marcel J. M. Hermans & Belavendram Pathiraj
Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing of Stellite 6
In this study, the WAAM technique (GMAW based – Panasonic robotic welding system) was employed to deposit Stellite 6 wire on S355 and AISI 420 steel plates. The advantages of the WAAM against LMD process include:
- the higher deposition rate;
- higher productivity;
- higher material usage;
- energy efficiency;
- low hardware and wire feedstock cost.
On the other hand LMD process can achieve low dilution when depositing Stellite 6 .
In this study we showed that using the WAAM technique it is possible to deposit a Stellite 6 layer with a minimum dilution of 18.05% and 19.6%, respectively on S355 and AISI 420 substrate, preserving optimal material quality (Figure 1, and Figure 2).
We have found Cr7C3 and Cr3C2 carbides, and Co4W2C intermetallic compounds in a Co-Cr-Fe solid solution (FCC) matrix in our investigation . These phases can contribute to the final wear, corrosion and erosion properties of Stellite 6.
Stellite 6 can be found in hardfacing and corrosive application in a wide temperature range, valve components and impellers.
 Ya, W. (2015). Laser materials interactions during cladding: analysis of clad formation, thermal cycles, residual stress and defects.
 Lin, Z., Ya, W., Subramanian, V. V., Goulas, C., di Castri, B., Hermans, M. J. M., & Pathiraj, B. (2020). Deposition of Stellite 6 alloy on steel substrates using wire and arc additive manufacturing. The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 111(1-2), 411–426.
Figure 1. Stellite 6 microstructure after WAAM 
Figure 2. Deposited Stellite 6 layer on a) S355 and b) AISI 420 plate